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  2. 高中英語語法歸納總結

    英語語法 時間:2018-11-02 我要投稿
    【www.sudurras1.com - 英語語法】

      第一章 名詞性從句

      在句子中起名詞作用的句子叫名詞性從句(Noun Clauses)。 名詞性從句的功能相當于名詞詞組, 它在復合句中能擔任主語、賓語、表語、同位語、介詞賓語等,因此根據它在句中不同的語法功能,名詞從句又可分別稱為主語從句、賓語從句、表語從句和同位語從句。

      一. 主語從句

      主語從句是在復合句中充當主語的從句,通常放在主句謂語動詞之前或由形式主語it代替,而本身放在句子末尾。

      1. It 作形式主語和it引導強調句的比較

      It 作形式主語代替主語從句,主要是為了平衡句子結構,主語從句的連接詞沒有變化。而it引導的強調句則是對句子某一部分進行強調,無論強調的是什么成分,都可用連詞that。被強調部分指人時也可用who/whom。例如:

      a) It is a pity that you didn’t go to see the film. 你不去看那場電影真可惜。

      b) It doesn’t interest me whether you succeed or not. 我對你成功與否不感興趣。

      c) It is in the morning that the murder took place. 謀殺案是在早上發生的。(強調句型) d) It is John that broke the window. 是John打碎的窗戶。(強調句型)

      2. 用it 作形式主語的結構

      (1) It is + 名詞 + 從句

      It is a fact that ? 事實是?

      It is an honor that ?非常榮幸

      It is common knowledge that ?是常識

      (2) It is + 形容詞 + 從句

      It is natural that?很自然?

      It is strange that?奇怪的是?

      (3) It is + 不及物動詞 + 從句

      It seems that? 似乎?

      It happened that? 碰巧?

      It appears that? 似乎?

      (4) It + 過去分詞 + 從句

      It is reported that? 據報道?

      It has been proved that?已證實?

      It is said that? 據說?

      3. 主語從句不可位于句首的五種情況:

     。1)if 引導的主語從句不可居于復合句句首。

     。2)It is said /reported?結構中的主語從句不可提前。例如:

      正確表達:It is said that President Jiang will visit our school next week.

      錯誤表達:That President Jiang will visit our school next week is said.

     。3)It happens/occurs?結構中的主語從句不可提前。例如:

      正確表達:It occurred to him that he failed in the examination.

      錯誤表達:That he failed in the examination occurred to him.

     。4)It doesn’t matter how/whether ?結構中的主語從句不可提前。例如:

      正確表達:It doesn’t matter whether he is wrong or not.

      錯誤表達:Whether he is wrong or not doesn’t matter.

     。5)含主語從句的復合句是疑問句時,主語從句不可提前。例如:

      正確表達:Is it likely that it will rain in the evening?

      錯誤表達:Is that will rain in the evening likely?

      4. what 與that 在引導主語從句時的區別

      what 引導主語從句時在句時在從句中充當句子成分,如主語.賓語.表語,而that 則不然。例如:

      a) What you said yesterday is right.

      b) That she is still alive is a consolation

      二.賓語從句

      賓語從句就是在復合句中作賓語的名詞性從句,通常放在主句謂語動詞 (及物動詞) 或介詞之后。

      1. 作動詞的賓語

      (1) 由that引導的賓語從句(that 通?梢允÷), 例如:

      I heard that be joined the army. 我聽說他參軍了。

      (2) 由what, whether (if) 引導的賓語從句,例如:

      a) She did not know what had happened. 她不知道發生了什么。

      b) I wonder whether you can change this note for me. 我想知道你是否能幫我改一下筆記。

      (3) 動詞+間接賓語+賓語從句。例如:

      She told me that she would accept my invitation. 她對我說她會接受我的邀請。

      2. 作介詞的賓語,例如:

      Our success depends upon how well we can cooperate with one another. 我們的成功取決于我們之間的合作。

      3. 作形容詞的賓語,例如:

      I am afraid (that) I’ve made a mistake. 我恐怕我已經犯了一個錯誤。

      注意:that 引導的從句常跟在下列形容詞后作賓語:anxious, aware, certain, confident, convinced, determined, glad, proud, surprised, worried, sorry, thankful, ashamed, disappointed, annoyed, pleased, hurt, satisfied, content 等。也可以將此類詞后的that 從句的看作原因狀語從句。

      4. it 可以作為形式賓語

      it 不僅可以作為形式主語,還可以作為形式賓語而真正的賓語that 從句則放在句尾,特別是在帶復合賓語的句子中。 例如:

      We heard it that she would get married next month. 我聽說她下個朋就會結婚了。

      5. 后邊不能直接跟that 從句的動詞

      這類動詞有allow, refuse, let, like, cause, force, admire, condemn, celebrate, dislike, love, help, take, forgive等。這類詞后可以用不定式或動名詞作賓語,但不可以用that引導的賓語從句。如:

      正確表達:I admire their winning the match.

      錯誤表達:I admire that they won the match.

      6. 不可用that從句作直接賓語的動詞

      有些動詞不可用于“動詞+間接賓語+that從句“結構中,常見的有envy, order, accuse, refuse, impress, forgive, blame, denounce, advise, congratulate等。例如:

      正確表達:He impressed the manager as an honest man.

      錯誤表達:He impressed the manager that he was an honest man.

      7. 否定的轉移

      若主句謂語動詞為think, consider, suppose, believe, expect, fancy, guess, imagine等,其后的賓語從句若含有否定意義,一般要把否定詞轉移到主句謂語上,從句謂語用肯定式。例如:

      I don’t think this dress fits you well. 我認為這件衣服不適合你穿。

      三. 表語從句

      表語從句在復合句中作表語的名詞性從句,放在系動詞之后,一般結構是“主語+連系動詞+表語從句”?梢越颖碚Z從句的連系動詞有be, look, remain, seem等。引導表語從句的that?墒÷。另外,常用的還有the reason is that? 和It is because 等結構。例如:

      1) The question is whether we can make good preparation in such a short time.

      2) This is why we can’t get the support of the people.

      3) But the fact remains that we are behind the other classes.

      4) The reason he is late for school is that he missed the early bus.

      四. 同位語從句

      同位語從句就是在復合句中作名詞的同位語的名詞性從句。

      1. 同位語從句的功能

      同位語從句對于名詞進一步解釋,說明名詞的具體內容,一般由that引導,例如:

      1) The king’s decision that the prisoner would be set free surprised all the people.

      2) The order that all the soldiers should stay still is given by the general.

      2. 同位語在句子中的位置

      同位語從句有時可以不緊跟在它所說明的名詞后面,而是被別的詞隔開。例如: He got the news from Mary that the sports meeting was put off.

      3. 同位語從句與定語從句的區別

      (1) 定語從句中的that既代替先行詞,同時以在從句中作某個成分(主語或賓語),而同位語從句中的that是連詞,只起連接主句與從句的作用,不充當句中任何成分。

      (2) 定語從句是形容詞性的,其功能是修飾先行詞,對先行詞加以限定,描述定的性質或特征;同位語從句是名詞性的,其功能是對名詞進行補充說明。例如:

      1) The news that he told me is that Tom would go abroad next year.(他告訴我的消息是湯姆明年將出國。)(第一個that引導的從句是定語從句,that在從句中作賓語)

      2)The news that Tom would go abroad is told by him.(湯姆將出國的消息是他講的。)(同位語從句,that在句中不作任何成分)

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